One of Canada's three Maritime provinces, New Brunswick was created in 1784 as a result of the partitioning of Nova Scotia, which was a British colony at the time. New Brunswick is constitutionally bilingual, with the official languages being English and French. The capital is Fredericton and the most populous city is Saint John, with a total population of 751,171 people. pre- European
The history of New Brunswick can be separated into four periods: pre-European contact, French colonization, British colonization and New Brunswick since Confederation.
The original inhabitants of New Brunswick were members of three distinct tribes: the Mi'kmaq, Wolastoqiyik, and Passamaquoddy.
The Mi'kmaq was the largest of the three and occupied the eastern and coastal areas of the province; they were also responsible for the Augustine Mound, a burial ground built about 800 B.C. The western portion is the traditional home of the Wolastoqiyik, and the Passamaquoddy occupied lands in the southwest of the province. French colonization
The first known person to explore New Brunswick was French explorer Jacques Cartier in 1534; he discovered and named the Bay of Chaleur. The next French contact was in 1604, when Pierre du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain set up camp for the winter on St. Croix Island.
During the French and Indian War (1754-63), the British conquered Acadia and extended their control over all of New Brunswick. After the Seven Years' War, most of the province was absorbed into the colony of Nova Scotia and designated as Sunbury County. In 1784, Britain split the colony into three separate colonies: New Brunswick, Cape Breton Island, and Nova Scotia. The colony of New Brunswick was created on August 16, 1784.
The province entered the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867. In 1877, the central government adopted new national policies and trade barriers; the situation was made worse by the Great Fire of 1877 and the decline of the wooden shipbuilding industry. By the 20th century, however, the province's economy began to expand again, but the Great Depression was another setback. The 1969 Official Languages Act made French an official language.